A part of Regular army was called Bahar Ardal. The artillery consisted of a few guns and canons of the old styles with a few mortars. March of Swat State ArmyThe machine-guns were few in number at the centre for whose use and maintenance trained soldiers were employed. The signal was called shisha. Trained and experienced persons served this department who had to accompany the forces on expedition. A modern band was part of the army.

The personal bodyguards of Mianul Jahanzeb were called Ardal-e-Hizur. Unlike the army soldiers and officers they received uniform, foot wear and cooked meal from the State.16 Service in the Wali’s bodyguard was considered more prestigious. Usually, men from the privileged families were employed in the bodyguard contingent.

2.3 Duties of the Armed Forces:

Main duty of the armed forces was fighting in defense of the State, but they performed other duties as well while at peace, e.g. construction of roads, schools and bridges. Because they needed to be put to some task or otherwise they would become soft. The public works were no hardship on them: they served for two months a year, divided up in shorter stretches of ten days at a time, so that their cultivated fields would not suffer, nor their part”. Moreover, “they needed to see their officers, and be under discipline now and again.

2.4 Qalas and Thanas (Tanras):

Qalas (forts) were constructed throughout the State for the maintenance of law and order. Each fort was under the command of an officer, and their Forces Subidar or Jamadar who had soldiers, commonly known asQala (Fort) at Kota Swat Qalawals, under him in the fort. All of them were required to live in the fort with their families. Every fort had a telephone and also a scribe for writing the reports of the day to day happenings. The fort institution was multi-purpose and multi-faceted. The highest officials of this department were four Majors and one Commander. Each Major was in charge of several forts and was responsible for the efficiency of his sub-ordinate officials.

Later on the forts were gradually replaced with Thanas. Difference between the fort and the Thana was that the sepoys posted in the fort were known as Qalawals and the officers were Jamadars and Subidars; whereas sepoys and officer of the Thanas were called police and Thanidars, respectively. However, Thanidars did not head all the Thanas. Moreover, buildings of the Thanas were mostly comprised of two rooms while the forts were huge buildings with family quarters. Above all the Thanas did not serve all the purposes served by the fort.

3 Financial Administration:

Like other states, affairs of Swat State too could not be run successfully without adequate financial resources and a sound finance system. Originator of Swat State’s financial administration too was Abdul Jabbar Shah.

3.1 Administrative Hierarchy:

The Ruler was the supreme head also of the finance department. He was the final authority of financial awards and no disbursement can be made without his prior approval. Like civil administration, the administrative hierarchy in respect of finances comprised the Ruler on the top and the Tahsildar at the bottom. At each Tahsil there was, however, a special clerk known as Sub-Daftar Mirza. He had to realise the State’s dues of the ijara from the Ijaradars; to submit the accounts in the Revenue Minister’s office at the Centre; and to keep accounts of the State revenue of the Tahsil.

At first, there was no Revenue Minister but later on a Revenue Minister was appointed to head the department who was called Wazir-e-Mal and was later on replaced Mashir-e-Mal (Revenue Advisor). He administered the department on behalf of the Ruler and also held judicial, executive and administrative functions and authority. In financial matters, a treasurer and a small staff at the Centre assisted him.

In the later reign of Miangul Abdul Wadud the heir apparent, Miangul Jahanzeb, used to check the accounts daily. It was, however, the Ruler himself, during Jahanzeb’s reign, who used to check daily, early in the morning, the record and statements of the revenue department presented to him by the Treasury Officer called Muhtamim Khazana. The Revenue Minister and later Revenue Advisor has been kept aloof from knowing the factual position of the total amount in the exchequer; and actual heads where and how it was spent.

3.2 Sources of the Revenue:

Mainsource of the State revenue was ushar, but in actual practice the State received 13.33% at the gross produce of the land at the threshing ground in the nature of ushar. In March 1969, the rate however was set at one tenth. In addition to ushar on crops, taxes /ushar was taken upon milch cows and buffaloes, herds of goats and sheep, orchards, beehives, and vegetables.

All the above mentioned taxes were not collected by the State itself, but were auctioned and granted to the highest bidders, known as Ijaragar/Ijaradar/Ushri, for the particular crop of the season, in case of ushar and for the year in case of other taxes, of the particular area.

The auctions were made by the Wazir-e-Mal through the Tahsildars. Only politically powerful persons made the bids. If they collected more they retained the excess, but if the collection was less they to make up the difference. The Ijaradar was required to pay the amount of grain/ghee/honey or the price thereof just after the collection season was over; that was why it was made obligatory for the concerned authorities to give the auctions to the financially well off persons, otherwise they themselves will have to pay the sum of the ijara.