The administrative posts were not permanent, but depended upon the sweet will of the Ruler who made frequent changes, i.e. he created the posts of Mashirs (Advisors) then they were elevated to Wazirs (Ministers); they were again substituted by Mashirs but again the posts of Wazirs, Naib Wazirs and Mashirs are found.10 there were also some other officials at the centre. These were the highest officials of the State having different areas under their jurisdictions. They had their offices at capital, were subordinate to the Ruler and heir apparent but answerable only to the former, and held both original and appellate jurisdiction.

1.5 Administrative Division:

Swat State was administratively divided into a number of administrative units called Hakimis and Tahsils. The administrative divisions were largely tribal in nature were run directly by the Central authority at Saidu Sharif but through the Tahsildars and Hakims.

BADSHAH MIANGUL GUL-SHAHZADA, RULER OF SWAT WITH SON AND CHIEF ATTENDENTS. Seated from left to right: Sipah Salar Ahmad Ali, Wazir Hazrat Ali, Badshah Miangul Gul-Shahzada Ruler of Swat, Shahzada Miangul Jahanzeb. Standing: Attaullah Khan, Raja Shah Alam, Abdul Latif Khan.The officer in charge of a Tahsil and Tahsildar.Tahsil was the smallest administrative unit of the State and the Tahsildar its administrative-cum-judicial-cum-executive-cum-financial officer. Whereas, Hakimi was somewhat larger unit and the Hakim was its administrative-cum-judicial-cum-executive-cum-financial officer. They were superior in rank and status to the Tahsildars.

Like all other officials and servants, the Tahsildars and Hakims were appointed by the Ruler and were answerable to him. They held their posts at his good will and were frequently transferred. Like the Ruler, the Tahsildars and Hakims had multiple responsibilities in their jurisdictions. They had to perform the administrative, executive, judicial and financial duties; and also a number of other duties like visiting the construction works, signing deeds of property deals and Nikahnamas, and so forth.

1.6 Secret Service:

There was neither formal secret service nor a need for it was felt, but in fact the Rulers kept their informers, who, on the whole, had neither good reputation nor any access to the elite circle and intelligentsia.

2 Military Administration:

Nikpikhel Armed MenAlthough at first the traditional Lashkar system was kept intact along with the State forces due to the exigency of the time it was gradually done away completely with and numbers of the forces were increased.

2.1 Organisational Structure:

The Ruler was the supreme head of the armed forces, and the Sipah Salar held the immediate command under him. The Sipah Salar was also assigned judicial and administrative duties.

Organisation of the armed forces was such that at the head of fifteen soldiers was an officer called Jamadar, five Jamadars were under a Subidar, five Subjdars under a Subidar Major and two Subidar Majors under a Captain. Prior to 1957 the Captain was called Kaman Afsar. Above them were two Naib Salars and one Sipah Salar, whose position was of the Defence Minister and Commander-in Chief. All of them were under the Ruler, who held the supreme authority and could order mobilisation of the forces. The Ruler had, moreover, the authority to appoint, promote and discharge men of all ranks, from an ordinary soldier up to Sipah Salar, according to his own discretion.

2.2 Types of the Armed Forces:

State Armed ForceArmed forces of the State comprised of two types of soldiers, i.e.Regular and Reserve. The Regular forces received remuneration while the Reserve did not even on active service.

The Regular forces were at first comprised of infantry and cavalry only but later on artillery, machine gun, signal and personal bodyguard of the Ruler were added to. Cavalry was the efficient and most effective part of the State armed forces in the early years of the state, but when neither menace from the neighboring States nor fear of revolt in the far flung areas remained and the road transport developed, owing to which cavalry became less useful, at first it was reduced in number and later on was completely done away with, in 1950s.