Swat's particular geographical position, in Asia, had exposed it to foreign influences and its historical and cultural development underwent multiple changes. The interaction of different people at different periods of time in the Valley proves that Swat evolved intimate terms with many races in the course of history. The archaeological findings here suggest the spreading of cultural and probably ethnical change too. The similarity between the tools and artifacts of the two regions is not due to the same origin of these people but to the Persian cultural influence over Swat.

Swat's particular geographical position, in Asia, had exposed it to foreign influences and its historical and cultural development underwent multiple changes. The interaction of different people at different periods of time in the Valley proves that Swat evolved intimate terms with many races in the course of history. The archaeological findings here suggest the spreading of cultural and probably ethnical change too. The similarity between the tools and artifacts of the two regions is not due to the same origin of these people but to the Persian cultural influence over Swat.

Swat's particular geographical position, in Asia, had exposed it to foreign influences and its historical and cultural development underwent multiple changes. The interaction of different people at different periods of time in the Valley proves that Swat evolved intimate terms with many races in the course of history. The archaeological findings here suggest the spreading of cultural and probably ethnical change too. The similarity between the tools and artifacts of the two regions is not due to the same origin of these people but to the Persian cultural influence over Swat.

Alexander In Valley Swat

The first ever mention of swat in historical documents is found in the accounts of Arrian, a Greek historian .In his arduous campaign of the East. Alexander invaded and passed en route, for the conquest of India, through swat but suffered great hardships. When he crossed river Panjkora toward Swat, 327 B.C., he marched first to attack Massaga, the biggest city of the area. The defenders, at Massaga, showed heroic courage and gave tough time to the invaders. They foiled the attempts on the city and defended it with great vigor. They at last concluded a treaty of peace with Alexander because of the death of their king, who was hit by the enemy, and also due to the introduction and use of advanced, and unfamiliar techniques and strategy by the Macedonians.

Alexander Coins

At the fall of Massaga Alexander dispatched one of his generals to Bazira and three to another city, Ora, instructing them to draw a rampart round it, and to invest it until his arrival. The inhabitants of Bazira stood firm and the matter did not go well with the Macedonians.Though Alexander directed his own march for Bazira, he himself proceeded directly against Ora and sent directions to Koinos at Bazira. After a gallant and stubborn resistance and defence, both Ora and Bazira also fell to the Macedonians. Alexander made Ora and Massaga strongholds for bridling the districts around them and the same time strengthened defences of Bazira and left Swat for his campaign of India. The inhabitants of Swat so detested the alien rule that whilst Alexander was encamped among the rivers of the Punjab that they threw off fear and renounced allegiance and enjoyed either independent or semi-independent status subsequently.