Before the merger, whether just or unjust, decisions were quick and chief. The litigants did not bear undue expenditures and the prolonged procedures. Not only this but the decisions were properly executed and implemented. With the merger, the position took a U-turn. Regulation No I of 1969 merged the State with this much change only that powers and functions of the Rulers were ceased and these were delegated to a person, officer or authority appointed or empowered by the Provincial Government. All the old laws including Regulations, orders, rules, notification and customs, having the force of law, were kept continued in force. This status quo created confusion and uncertainty. There were no clear cut laws, rules and regulations and the administrative cum judicial officers used to define and pronounce the riwaj according to their own will. That was why an association was formed which was named "Justice League".

On 31st December 1970 Gazette Notification of 'Tribal Areas (Application of Laws) Regulation 1970" was done. This introduced Criminal Courts with the enforcement of these laws: The Police Act, 1861; The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898; The Pakistan Penal Code (Act XLV of 1860); and The Evidence Act, 1872. Thus the old laws were repealed to that extent. On April 17, 1974 Regulation I of 1974 was enforced which established Civil and Revenue Courts by extending these laws: The West Pakistan Civil Courts Ordinance, 1962; The Code of Civil Procedures, 1908; and The West Pakistan Land Revenue Act, 1967. Off and on laws were extending replacing the old laws. However the major change was the promulgation of Regulation No I of 1975, Regulation No II of 1975 and Regulation No IV of 1976, commonly known as PATA Regulations, which led the prevailing conditions from bad to worse.

With the merger confusion and chaos prevailed in Swat. The litigants did not know where to turn for justice. Quick and chief trial and decisions, whether just or unjust, and their proper execution and implementation came to an end. The prolonged procedures, undue delay, great expenditures, high bribes, misuse of riwaj and the further deterioration by PATA Regulations highly aggravated almost all the people of Swat, and resulted the momentum of the movement 'Tanzim Nifaz Shariat Muhammadi" (TNSM) in Swat, and the demand for the enforcement of Shariat.

These were the main effects and consequences of the merger of Swat State with Pakistan. A spokesman of the Foreign Office of Pakistan responding to the statement of the Afghan Government spokesman against the merger, himself had pointed out on August 6, 1969 that the people felt that the merger "... would accelerate the pace of their development". President Yahya Khan too had promised that the existing facilities and privileges will be kept intact and the rights denied by the ex-rulers will be granted.1" However instead of the acceleration of the "pace of development" inverse development took place. Most of the hopes, expectations and promises proved futile, and most of the effects and consequences of the merger did not prove good and favourable for Swat and the people of Swat.

It is noteworthy that those who have worked against the Wali were not unanimous in their designs. Most of them were not against the State. Their main concern was not the merger but reforms, constitutional government with a powerful Consultative Council and freedom from autocracy within the State. But, as has already been stated, the Wali's stand was that either he will rule with absolute powers and authority or there will be no State at all.

The aforementioned were the main blessings and curses of the new set-up. They were also the consequences of the transfer of authority and responsibility in decision making from a small and local to a larger and wider national and provincial centralization. Thus the model of Swat State could be studied to show how a constitutional localized system could work within the broader framework of a national State in a changing socio-political scenario.

Merger of Swat State with Pakistan Causes and Effects, Dr. Sultan-I-Rome, MARC Occasional Papers, No. 14-April 1999.IUED, The University of Geneva