By Altaf Khatak
During the pre- Aryan times “Sid” (meaning “to flow” in Dravidian language), was name applied by the dwellers of this country in its vicinity. This word was later on pronounced with nasal sound and became “Sind” just like many other Dravidian words as “Kuraga” in to “Kuranga” (monky) or “Laka” in to “Lanka” (Island) and so on. The word “Sind” was further corrupted in to Sind in to “Indu” by the Aryans, “Sindhu” is still in use in the interior of Sind is the name of the river (i.e. Sindhu- nadi).
Aryans pre-fixed the word “Sindhu” to “Sapta-Sindhu” denoted the seven rivers (Satlaj, Bias, Ravi, Chanab, Jehlum, Sind and Sarawati) as also the country in their nieghbourhood. Six of the above rivers are known and are in existence today. The seventh,” Sarawati” which flowed in Eastern Punjab, in olden days, is now extinct but the name “ Saraswati” survives in Hindu religious books, as the goddesses of learning and a form of goddess Parvati.
The nearest neighbors of this country are the Persians, substituted an ‘H’for the Sanskrit ‘ S’ and converted “ Sapta Sindhu” into “ Hafta- Hindu” just like the conversion of “ Somia” (Sanskrit) into “ Homa” ( Persian) Sapta and Hafta are still in use Baharat and Persia, respectively for seven. The word “Hafta-Hindu” was for the “Land of seven rivers” by the Persians.
In the course of time “Safta” and “Hafta” were dropped and the country was spoken as “Sindhu” or “Sindhawa” by the Aryans and “Hindu” by the Persians. The root of these words is “Sind” or “Hind”.
Whatever the knowledge the Greeks and the Romans had about the country, they acquired it through Persian word “Hind”. Ionians, The first Greek, to have come in contact with Asia having no aspirate, Made the word in to “ Ind” later on, “ Stan” ( Persian) meaning a country, as in “ Turkistan’, “ Arabistan”, “Afghanistan” , Baltistan etc. and “ ia” ( Greek) also denoting a country like “ Lydia” Laconia etc. were added to the words “ Hind” and “ Ind” respectively and thus the words “ Hindustan” and “ India” came into being. There were the new names of the country, originally known as “Safta-Sindhu” or “Hafta-Hindu”, which is now Pakistan. Indus is most probably the corruption of “ Hindush”( Persian) or it may have been corrupted from ind just as Porus from Poro or Egyptus from Egypt or Nilus from Nile.
To the geographer Hecataes of Miletus ( 549-52 B.C) as also to the Historian Herodotus, known as the “ father of history” ( 486-428), India was the country to the neighbourhood of river Indus and this was the ultimate country on the face of the earth. Beyond this lay the “Deserta in coginita”, unknown desert or Marusthali (place of death). It shows that Bharat was not known to the Greeks to whom, India was Pakistan and not the entire Peninsula, same as was known to the Persians.
It is significant that the names of cities and rivers, deserving their origin from “HIND” OR “ Ind” like “ Indus-India Alba” (Kohat)” Oihind” (Hund District Swabai) “Indo Sethya” ( Chitral) “ Hind-wara”( in Kashmir) and also the country in the West of Indus, reckoned as Indian territory were not and are not situated in Bharat, thereby proving that “ Hind” or “ Ind” ( Hindustan or India), with its frontiers of “ Hindu-kush” or “ Sirhind” ( near the now extent river of Sarawati, the boundary line of Harappa or Mohinjodaro Empire).
Conversion of Bharat to India
Bharat latter came in to existence after the advent of the Aryans in this Peninsula, some times after 1500 BC it was located near the Ganges and Jamna was ruled by the tribes of Kurus whose sub- clan Bharatas, gave Bharat its name, its capital was Hast was pure and was out of reach and devoid from the known civilized world as late as 326 BC, indicates that these were two different entities, separated by a vast distance of time and space. This condition of separate identities remained in force, through out the ages with the exception of a few sporadic governments.
How the entire peninsula came to be known as India?
“Tatar” originally the name of a single Turkish tribe was later applied to the thousands of Mongol and Turks tribes. “Sarsena”, was small kingdom of Senai, was applied to the entire Muslims world by the Crusaders etc.
After the departure of Alexander, Chndragupta Maurya, a non Bharati and probably a non Aryan and a non Hindu( because he was a Punjabi and the Punjabis and Sindhis belonged to a non Aryan and non Hindu Stock) brought up Taksashila( Taxila) with Chanakya as his minister. He advanced in Bharat and conquered it with troops enlisted in his newly acquired kingdom of Indus valley.
It is glaringly clear, that the Maurya Empire (the so called first Bharati Empire) was the rule of India, “Indus valley over Bharat, the latter have been subjugated, was merged with the conquering country, and thus lost its name of the ruling country i.e. “ India” (Indus valley).
Ever since the establishment of Mauryan empire , when the denomination of “ India” or “Hindustan” was applied to the whole of the peninsula, by despotic conquerors, of this sub- continent and some time for its adjoining countries like Burma and Ceylon when included under the British Empire of India . These countries have readapted their own entities now Burma and Ceylon can have no right to the use of the name of “India” or “Hindustan” for their national identities because they were once under the British Empire of India, to suit the administrative designs of the latter, the same way Bharat do not have the right to masquerade under the name, because she had once enjoyed this privilege due to the exigencies of the Maurayan, Mughul and British Empires. Why should this country transfer or lose its identity, to satiate the greediness of other countries. The despotic empires responsible to tie up many countries in to one administrative facilities are now past and forgotten and it is time this country should claim its title. Bharat should in all fairness surrender to its rightful owner the property, which does not belong to it.
It is clear that India or Hindustan was the name of the country, now known as Pakistan and that Bharat has usurped this name, for the obvious motive of falsely declaring to the world, that she is the oldest country on the face of the earth and that it is she who gave civilization and culture to the former and therefore the glory of ancientness belongs to her. Bharat claims are blatantly incorrect because she was unknown to the known world as late as 326 BC. By making the world believe this falsehood, Bharat has benefited materially and morally because she has built an extensive tourist trade and has acquired dignity, the natural out come of the attribution of ancientness. This attribute along with its accompanying results belong to Pakistan, by virtue of her being the rightful heir to the heritage of antiquity as also of being the real “India” and “Hindustan”.
Source: Udyana Today: a quarterly news letter of Environmental Protection Society, Swat. Issue No. 4 Volume 7, October-December 1999.
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